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No 28
Vol. 28 No. 7
2017
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Environment and Natural resources destruction is rooted in modern man’ paradigm and his relationship with himself and the universe. This happened because of technology intensive use as well as ignorance of traditions; however, these two led to environmental crisis. To resolve this problem, the mankind must change his behavior morally according to a divine paradigm. In this study, Two methods were used: the document review method was to study natural resources preservation education literatures. The explanation method was used to explain why we need a divine paradigm for preservation of natural resources education .The outcomes of this study are explaining ontology, epistemology, methodology, anthropology and axiology of divine paradigm for preservation of Environment and natural resources education. Although the various ways are recommended to prevent crises in natural resources context however, Environment and natural resources researchers and planners believe that relying only on technical advices is not essentially applicable. Because these crises represent a human tragedy: ignorance of God Who is creator of the universe. For this reason a divine paradigm based on "Analytical/scientific knowledge", "Metaphysical Knowledge" and "Religious/ethical Knowledge" is essential. This paradigm can be used by planners and officials for preservation of Environment and natural resources education.
Keywords : Divine Paradigm, Preservation of Environment and Natural Resources ، Education, Islam ،
George Gerbner, professor of communications and founder of the "cultivation theory", believed that television shares important elements among heterogeneous populations, including: religious and moral values . It was initially welcomed by researchers in the West. Graebner positivist assumptions and the process of change moral values in this theory, has caused the need for research on the possibility or impossibility of changing values. This article with the descriptive and analytical method investigates the possibility or impossibility of changing moral values at some School of Moral. and it is studied the variability of moral values and ethics in the field of communication and moral.
Keywords : Moral values, Cultivation Analysis , George Gerbner, TV
This paper shows that Mill has used 18 different terms for “harm” in his On Liberty. Then, it criticizes Mill’s “Harm Principle” and, instead, raises a new theory entitled the “Moral Permissibility of the Subjective Harm.” This theory is based on the “necessity” and “avoidability” of the “harm.” It uses “~□p → ◊~p” formula in the “deontic logic” to show the “unnecessity” and “avoidability” of the “harm” and distinguish “subjective” from “objective” “harm:” X is “objective” iff (if and only if) it is “necessary” or “unavoidable,” and it is “subjective” iff it is “unnecessary” or “avoidable.” Finally, it will describe the “reasons” and “consequences” of the “moral permissibility” of the “subjective harm.”
Keywords : The Theory of the “Moral Permissibility of the Subjective Harm,” Subjective Harm, Objective Harm
Ijtihad’s goal is acquisition of true knowledge of juristic judgements and the knowledge is affected by various elements. Moral attributes of the religious jurist, divided into virtues and evils, is one of the elements. virtues affect true knowledge and comprehension of Islamic jurisprudence significantly, as evils prevent it, therefore, recognition of the effective attributes in Ijtihad (both virtues and evils) is necessary. Religious jurist must try to acquire the true knowledge, consequently, he should arrange moral virtues that affect the knowledge and be free from moral evils, too`. Effect of moral attributes in Ijtihad ,as a principle, is the preconception. In this article by both rational or traditional methods, researchers investigate which attributes affect Ijtihad. Moral justice, fair thought, humility, egoism, mundane, hastiness and hostility are the most important moral attributes that affect Ijtihad.
Keywords : Ijtihad, jurisprudential knowledge, ethics, effectiveness, moral attributes
With the advent of scientific advances in recent centuries, widespread philosophical criticisms weakened the traditional evidences and compelled the theistic to pursue novel evidences such as ethics to support their ideas., the moral argument of Robert Merrihew Adams is one of the contemporary moral argument for the existence of God. By devised the theory of virtue by Adams, offers a new explanation of moral values which have ability to justify the objectivity of moral values, as the most important element of Ethics Meaningful, and also have ability to justify The truth of theism, as a important part of this explanation. In this article we have tried to explain this idea and described this theory and analyzed the argument which raised from this theory and prepared evidences and reasons for the existence of God and then we examine the critics of that
Keywords : The moral argument for the existence of God, the theory of virtue of Adams, the argument from best explanation, objectivity of moral values, Excellence in Being for the Good  

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